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State Wellhead Protection Programs (WHPPs), utilize various methods to delineate the extent and configuration of those areas that contribute water to supply wells or wellfields. Once these Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs) are defined, state and local governments can implement zoning laws and land use regulations designed to protect these areas. These regulation may limit or prohibit activitities that may re-define zoning laws that could eliminate high risk activities from land areas that pose a threat to the water supply wells or wellfields. However, the methods used to delineate WHPAs, can, and often do, produce misleading results. These inaccuracies are due to either the method's inability to account for specific data in its calculation or the lack of sufficient hydrogeologic data to support more complex delineation methods. Data from a New Jersey site was evaluated using three different methods, relative differences were measured between the resultant 2-year wellhead protection areas for each method (i.e., Calculated Fixed Radius (CFR), Analytical Equations, and Numerical Modeling). The size differences in the resulting delineated 2-year WHPAs size ranged from 11% to 45% greater than and 16% to 68% less than the baseline 2-year WHPA.
calculated fixed radius, zone of contribution, travel time, flowlines, sensitivity analysis, steady state simulation, fully penetrating well
Senior Hydrogeologist and Groundwater Modeler, First Environment, Inc., New Jersey,
Technical Director of Hydrogeology, First Environment, Inc., New Jersey,