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Rigid pipe sewer and culvert installations are frequently weakened by failure to install the pipe in a high-quality bedding which will laterally distribute the upward reaction on the bottom of the pipe. If the reaction is caused to be concentrated, the bending moment in the pipe wall is seriously increased, and failure in the form of cracking or spalling may result.
Another construction feature which may lead to difficulty is failure to place the sidefill soil in intimate contact with the sides of the pipe. Every pound of active lateral pressure which can be brought to bear against the sides of the pipe increases its ability to carry vertical load practically one for one.
The writer indicates that a pipe on a high-quality bedding with favorable conditions for the development of active lateral pressure on the pipe sides will carry approximately 2½ times as much load as the same pipe on a poor-quality bedding with no opportunity for side pressure to develop.
concrete pipe, soil-structure interaction, bed load, patterns, pressure distribution, sands, crushed stone, gravel, backfilling, lateral pressure, soil pressure
Research professor of civil engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa