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The purpose of this paper is to introduce CANDE, a new computer program for the structural design and analysis of pipe culverts, including not only reinforced concrete, but also corrugated steel, corrugated aluminum, and plastic pipe. CANDE operates either in a design or an analysis mode and offers a choice of three solution levels ranging from an elasticity solution to a general finite-element solution. The solution level concept allows the design engineer to choose a degree of rigor and cost commensurate with a particular project. Analytical modeling features include: incremental construction, nonlinear behavior of both soil and pipe, and nonlinear contact interfaces.
concrete pipes, culverts, design, pipes, computer programming, reinforced concrete, corrugated metal pipes, steels, aluminum, plastic pipes, finite-element method, interfaces
research structural engineerassociate professor, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Naval Construction Battalion CenterUniversity of Notre Dame, Port HuenemeNotre Dame, Calif.Ind.