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A plethora of products and techniques are currently employed at commercial ski areas to help prevent or reduce injuries from impact with man-made structures and other obstacles. The design and function of these products and techniques range from warnings and education to impact prevention. This paper describes the most popular mitigation measures currently in use and, where recent laboratory tests or field experience or both are available, explains their effectiveness. Some recent innovations are also discussed.
impact mitigation, padding, shielding, screening, fixed obstacles, natural obstacle, man-made obstacle, breakaway supports, inherent risk, skier
Ski safety consultant and educator, Snowbridge Associates, Truckee, CA