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The source and type of errors in relative density are assessed. Based on reported values of maximum, minimum, and in situ density errors, expected errors in relative density are determined. These values may be used as a basis for setting confidence limits on the results of studies involving relative density. Engineering applications of the relative density parameter are discussed, and alternatives to relative density are given. Factors influencing the maximum and minimum densities used in calculating relative density are summarized. Experience in correlating relative density to blow count and strength of cohesionless materials is reviewed. Finally, based on all of the information gathered in the symposium, a series of recommendations are given for modifications to the ASTM test procedures and for needed new procedures.
cohesionless soils, density (mass/volume)
Associate professor, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y.
Laboratory director, Woodward-Moorhouse & Associates, Clifton, N. J.