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    Uniformity of Saturated Sand Specimens

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    Methods for checking the uniformity of saturated sand specimens during their preparation and at various stages of cyclic loading triaxial, simple shear, and shake table liquefaction tests are presented. These methods involve the use of a gelatin solution to solidify the specimen so that it can be removed from the test apparatus for determination of the void ratio distribution. A soil strain apparatus was also used to monitor the deformations induced within the large shake table specimens during testing. The preparation methods adopted for the liquefaction tests resulted in the production of uniform test specimens. However, changes in the specimen's void ratio distribution during a cyclic loading liquefaction test can result in the formation of a nonuniform specimen with a loose top layer. Such loose zones can lead to a significant reduction in the resistance to liquefaction of saturated sands.


    cohesionless soils, density (mass/volume), sands, gelatins, solidification, liquefaction, cyclic loads, variability, strain measurement, soil mechanics

    Author Information:

    Emery, JJ
    Assistant professor, McMaster University, Hamilton,

    Liam Finn, WD
    Professor of civil engineering and dean, Faculty of Applied Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,

    Lee, KW
    Graduate student, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,

    Committee/Subcommittee: D18.92

    DOI: 10.1520/STP37873S