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For a laboratory study of the drainage of long columns of porous media, a maximum density, uniformly distributed throughout the column, was required. Research resulted in the development of a mechanical technique for the packing of drainage columns, as much as 60 in. long, with glass beads and natural sands of various particle sizes. A vibratory packer used to pack these columns, which are 1 to 8 in. in diameter, provided good reproducibility of dry unit weight and porosity between duplicate columns as well as a vertical uniformity of these properties within the same or duplicate columns. To develop the standard method of packing columns, a study was made of the effects of time, amplitude, and surcharge weight on the uniformity and reproducibility of results. The technique was standardized at a packing period of 10 s and a vibratory amplitude of 0.09 cm.
density (mass/volume), compacting, porosity, void ratio, specific yield, porous materials, tests, drainage, cohesionless soils
Assistant chief, Office of Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.
Assistant district chief, U. S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska