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The purpose of the automotive engine cooling system is to control metal temperatures within safe limits by removing excess heat produced by the engine. High speed driving with today's engines can produce enough heat energy, which is rejected to the cooling system, to melt an average 200 lb (90.9 kg) engine block in 20 rain ! Even driving at moderate speeds, the temperatures inside the engine are extremely high. Combustion gas temperatures may be as high as 4500°F (2482°C). The heads of the exhaust valves may be red hot, and the temperature of lubricated parts, such as pistons, may run 200°F (93°C) or more above the boiling point of water. When metal temperatures are not controlled by adequate cooling, the consequences are lubrication failure and serious engine damage.