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This paper presents empirical stress-intensity factor equations for embedded elliptical cracks, semielliptical surface cracks, quarterelliptical corner cracks, semielliptical surface cracks at a hole, and quarterelliptical corner cracks at a hole in finite plates subjected to remote tensile loading. These equations give stress-intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and, where applicable, hole radius. The stress-intensity factors used to develop the equations were obtained from current and previous three-dimensional finite-element analyses of these crack configurations. A wide range of configuration parameters was included in the equations. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0 to 1, the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2, and the ratio of hole radius to plate thickness ranged from 0.5 to 2. The effects of plate width on stress-intensity variations along the crack front also were included, but generally were based on engineering estimates. For all combinations of parameters investigated, the empirical equations were generally within 5 percent of the finite-element results, except within a thin “boundary layer” where the crack front intersects a free surface. However, the proposed equations are expected to give a good estimate in this region because of a study made on the boundary-layer effect. These equations should be useful for correlating and predicting fatigue crack growth rates as well as in computing fracture toughness and fracture loads for these types of crack configurations.
cracks, surface cracks, corner cracks, crack propagation, fracture, stress analysis, fatigue (materials), stress-intensity factors, finite elements
Senior scientist, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.
Associate research professor, The George Washington University, Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.