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Atmospheric conditions, whether at room temperature or in high temperature ovens, do not consist of pure environments. Resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) dipped nylon and polyester tire cords lose adhesion to rubber stocks upon exposure to environmental pollutants. Adhesion degradation is most severe upon exposure to ozone and ozone-ultraviolet light. Other degradants such as nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, heat, and air have a much lesser effect on adhesion loss. Degradation is caused by attack of the olefinic double bonds of the butadiene component of the rubber latex to reduce sites for cure with stock formulations. Addition of proprietary waxes to the RFL dip provides protection from adhesion loss during exposure by blooming to the surface of the dip on the cord.
Brass coated steel rapidly loses adhesion upon exposure to nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. However, humidity and heat do not affect adhesion loss. Corrosion of the metals catalyzed by acidic pollutants eliminates sites for cure to the sulfur adducts of the adhesion stocks.
nylon, polyester, brass coated steel, tire cord, atmospheric pollutants, ozone and ultraviolet degradation, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, corrosion, olefinic double bonds, ethylene bisstearamide, wax, bloomming, surface degradation, resorcinolformaldehyde-latex coating
Research and development manager, Uniroyal, Inc., Winnsboro, S.C.