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Based on a regional weighting technique, it was found that the Northern Hemisphere had a significant 5 percent increase in total ozone (O3) between the early 1960s and about 1970, a barely significant 1 to 2 percent decrease in total O3 between 1970 and 1971–1972, and little change thereafter, though rather low levels were observed temporarily in early 1976. In the southern hemisphere the total O3 increased slightly prior to 1968 and has decreased slightly since, but neither change approaches significance. Umkehr measurements indicate about a 12 percent increase in O3 amount in the 32 to 46-km layer in north temperate latitudes between 1964 and 1972, with the evidence for a slight decrease thereafter controversial due to the uncertainties introduced into the Umkehr technique by aerosols from the Fuego, Guatemala eruption. It is shown that for the past 12 years the trend in total O3 amount in north temperate latitudes has been closely related to the trend in stratospheric water vapor in Washington, D. C. and equatorial tropopause temperature, but inversely related to the trend in stratospheric temperature in north temperate latitudes.
spectrophotometers, ozone, Umkehr method, stratosphere, troposphere, temperature, water vapor, solar proton, Agung eruption, Fuego eruption, quasi-biennial oscillation, nuclear tests, fluorocarbons
Research meteorologist, Air Resources Laboratories, Silver Spring, Md.