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The continuing trend toward lower tolerances for contaminants in oil products places a heavy demand on both well established and new analytical techniques. Some of the new techniques, in spite of the fact that they are uncommonly expensive and sophisticated, may be needed to comply with existing or future specifications. The first part of this paper presents general considerations on trace analysis, sampling, contamination, etc. The second part describes several techniques for the quantitative determination of vanadium, lead, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium at the concentration levels indicated in the ASTM Specifications for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils (D 2880-71). Neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence, arc, spark and flame emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and spark source mass spectormetry are described in principle. Their characteristics are also intercompared as well as their general advantages and limitations.
fuels, gas turbines, trace elements, contamination, sampling, analyzing
Technical associate, Gulf Research and Development Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.