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**Source: **STP36393S

Partial substitution of portland cement (PC) with materials such as blast-furnace slag (BFS) or fly ash (FA) affects: workability or water demand; characteristic strength at a given age; and the maturity needed to attain a given strength.

Assuming constant workability, the efficiency of the substitute material may be stated in terms of the ratio of the mass of BFS plus FA to the mass of PC which is substituted.

For equal workability and strength, the efficiency factor varies with blend proportions and the characteristic strength. In the present investigation, the efficiency factor diminished for all strength levels as the proportion of BFS increased from 25 to 75%. The maturity efficiency factor is given by the ratio of log (maturity) values for the cements being considered. In this case the mass ratio water/binder is constant. Maturity efficiency factors reduced with increase in BFS but did not vary with age.

**Keywords:**

blast-furnace slag, cement, fly ash, portland cement, hydration, strength, efficiency, maturity

**Author Information:**

Mills, RH *Professor of civil engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.*

**Committee/Subcommittee:** C01.27

**DOI:** 10.1520/STP36393S