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    Spatial Variation of Characteristics in the Zone of Incorporation at an Industrial Waste Land Treatment Site

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    The spatial variation in the characteristics of the zone of incorporation (ZOI) at an industrial waste land treatment site can be significant even when efforts are taken to achieve uniform distribution and incorporation. A single grab sample can be inappropriate for determining average ZOI characteristics.

    The results of this study provide guidance in determining the number of samples necessary to provide reliable estimates of ZOI characteristics. The spatial variation at land treatment sites is a function of site-specific factors such as soil characteristics and methods of waste application and incorporation. A determination of specific site spatial variation is recommended as a prerequisite for developing an appropriate sampling program at land treatment sites.


    land treatment, zone of incorporation, industrial wastes, spatial variation, oily wastes, hazardous wastes, sampling methods

    Author Information:

    Loehr, RC
    Professor of civil engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX

    Martin, JH
    Research associates, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

    Neuhauser, EF
    Research associates, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

    Committee/Subcommittee: D34.03

    DOI: 10.1520/STP36379S