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An overview is presented of the techniques available for characterizing process nonuniformities on large-diameter wafers. Examples are given of the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping techniques for displaying within-wafer variability, and of relative and cumulative frequency plots for representing process tolerances. Two new display methods are recommended for dealing with small data sets: minicontour maps and folded-axis cumulative frequency plots.
resistivity characterization, nonuniformities, silicon wafers, large-diameter wafers, ion implantation, resistivity mapping, two-dimensional maps, three-dimensional maps, contour maps, frequency plots
Signetics Corporation, Sunnyvale, Calif.