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The need for a new generation of electronic circuits with a high degree of integration and a large area of silicon imposes a new demand on the quality of silicon used for their fabrication. This paper reviews the generation process of crystallographic defects (in the context of material characteristics), their effect on device/circuit performance, and their relationship to crystal growth conditions.
The defect formation during processing, effectiveness of internal gettering, and mechanical strength of silicon (resistance to warpage) are mainly controlled by characteristics of oxygen in silicon. For a given process, oxygen precipitation kinetics depends on the crystal growth conditions, which control oxygen incorporation into silicon, formation of active sides for oxygen nucleation, and initial stage of oxygen precipitation. It is believed that proper understanding of required silicon characteristics and proper control of the crystal growth process will lead to higher yield of integrated circuits.
defects in silicon, silicon crystals, silicon wafers, defect generation in wafers, effects of defects on circuit performance, oxygen precipitates, thermal donors
Member Technical Staff, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J.