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Recently high-pressure oxidation has been successfully applied to both bipolar and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technologies. This paper reviews those aspects of high-pressure oxidation, from a perfection standpoint, which are necessary to qualify this technique for incorporation into device processing.
Oxidation-induced stacking faults, which are known to degrade junctions, are shown to be reduced with high-pressure oxidation when compared with conventional wet oxidation at atmospheric pressure. Models are discussed which correlate well with this observation.
Impurity levels, as measured by defect state concentration measurements and neutron activation, have values equal to or lower than those for wafers oxidized by conventional techniques. A review of oxide charges present, as observed by several authors on various equipment including commercial pyrogenic and water-injected systems, shows values comparable to one atmosphere control. Additionally, process parameters affecting stress in the growing oxide film are discussed.
Overall, the high-pressure oxidation technique appears to grow high-quality oxides comparable to those grown in qualified conventional systems.
steam oxidation, high-pressure oxidation, defects in oxidation, silicon oxide on silicon, oxide quality
Supervisor and Member of Techical Staff, Bell Laboratories, Allentown, Pa.