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Key parameters and process tradeoffs in improving resist profile quality and linewidth control are explored for optical projection printing. Simulation with program SAMPLE is used to study the impact of image quality, wafer topography, and resist characteristics in the context of the complete lithographic process. The advantages of the use of a bias and of a “surface induction” resist are illustrated. The tradeoff between quality and throughput is explored as a function of the partial coherence factor. Practical rules of thumb are given for performance with single-layer thick resists. The potential improvements with multilayer and inorganic resists are also discussed.
linewidth control, photolithography, resist profile quality, optical projection printing, photoresists
University of California, Berkeley, Calif.