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Optical lithography using UV radiation (200 to 450 nm) has long been the workhorse in pattern generation for fabricating integrated circuit devices on silicon. Various techniques employing projection and proximity printing using electron-beam-generated photomasks have been developed to reduce feature sizes, to improve device yields, and to lower device fabrication costs. In this review, some optical lithographic techniques available for fabricating semiconductor devices are described. The advantages and limitations of the various methods are discussed with an emphasis on their suitability for the geometries required for VLSI.
optical lithography, projection and proximity printing, linewidth control, ultraviolet lithography, electron beam/X-ray lithography
Member Technical Staff, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.