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The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has broad and flexible authority under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Under FIFRA, EPA determines the pesticides that may be registered and for what uses. Scientific data and knowledge serve as the basis for determinations of unreasonable adverse effects. Three elements are contained in the environmental hazard assessment: determination of toxicity, determination of fate and exposure, and the integration of the two into a determination of hazard. Basic wildlife testing requirements include an avian dietary LC50 on two species, an avian single-dose oral LD50, and a rat single-dose oral LD50. Additional testing requirements for avian and mammalian wildlife include reproduction, pen field, and full-field studies. The EPA requirements are arranged in a tier or sequential fashion. The simple short-term laboratory studies are required at the first level for all manufacturing-use products and all formulated products intended for outdoor application.
pesticide, regulatory, wildlife, hazard assessment, avian toxicity, mammalian toxicity, avian dietary LC, 50, avian single-dose LD, 50, reproduction, field studies
Branch Chief, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.,