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Terms commonly used by terrestrial plant ecologists and applicable to the aquatic situation are defined in this paper. These terms include: quantitative and vegetation; the vegetation descriptors—frequency, density, and dominance; regular and random sampling patterns; and areal and arealess survey methods. Sampling strategies for planning an efficient sampling program are also discussed. The purpose of the sample, equipment, logistics, and costs are all important design considerations as are sample size and confidence. A strong case is made for an optimally allocated, stratified random sampling system, and practical sampling considerations are included.
aquatic plants, terminology, sampling and stratification, quantitative vegetation description, sampling strategies, stratified random sample
Head of biology section, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, WI