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Toxic and repellent chemicals and devices are available in some countries as tools for reducing agricultural crop losses to vertebrate pests. Determining the benefits of these materials usually requires testing and evaluation programs in many environments and against many species. In developing countries, however, replicated test designs and the associated sophisticated statistics normally cannot be used. Varied sizes of test sites, nonuniformity of cultural practices, limited staff, varied ability of technicians, and the multiplicity of depredating species are some of the more important reasons for this. Some method of demonstrating efficacy, using acceptable procedures, needs to be conducted under the conditions of actual use. Systematic-random sampling patterns and simplified data collection procedures are suggested. Many examples are drawn from field trials conducted in developing countries, primarily in Africa, over the past several years.
cereal crop losses, bird pests, rodent pests, Quelea, Rattus, developing countries, Africa, Philippines, chemical test protocols, chemical test limitations, vertebrate pest control
Wildlife Biologist, Denver Wildlife Research Center, Denver, Colo.
Director, Center for Environmental Research and Services, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio