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The factors leading to Jet A-2, a new National Standard of Canada [Standard for Turbine Fuel, Aviation: Kerosine Type (CAN2-3.23-77)] of 33°C (92°F) flash point are discussed. Refineries in Canada are limited to a minimum production ratio of gasoline to distillate of about 1.0. Recent trends show a reduced growth rate for gasoline and healthy growth for distillates including jet fuel. Kerosine jet fuel has the most restrictive requirements and the most economical way to increase production is to expand the distillation range. The high demand for low pour point fuel oils for Canada's severe winter climate aggravates the production problem.
A study of major Canadian airports shows Toronto to have the warmest summer temperatures. Average daily maximum ambient temperature from 30-year data is 27°C (80°F), well below the Jet A-2 flash point of 33°C (92°F). This 6°C difference is conservative compared with ambient airport temperatures versus a 38°C (100°F) flash point experienced in other parts of the world. Jet A-2 has a vapor pressure at 38°C (100°F) only slightly greater than Jet A-1 1.0 versus 0.76 kPa (0.145 versus 0.110 psia, respectively). Mixing Jet A-2 with Jet A or Jet A-1 in an aircraft tank will have a minor effect on resulting flash point. The hazard in fuel spills is the possibility of vapors being ignited. Canadian experience with Jet B shows this hazard to be minimal. Data on rate of flame spread over pools of burning fuel show that Jet A-2 represents a small change compared with Jet A.
airport temperatures, gasoline to distillate production ratio, low pour fuel oil, fuel spills, flash point of mixtures, reduced flash kerosine, vapor pressure, volatility, rate of flame spread
Staff engineer, Shell Canada, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario