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Various nonequilibrium combustion conditions are examined and evaluated regarding their effect on safety. Tank flammability limits are indicated to depend on the ratio of empty to liquid volume when fuels of different “light ends” content are used. Altitude effects and mist ignitability are discussed as is the effect of volatility on fire spread above a fuel pool. Because information is only available for Jet A and Jet B type fuels, the author offers his estimate of the effect of kerosine flash point reduction on the various properties of importance. If the use of such fuels is to be considered, performance data should be obtained to assess the impact of flash reduction on fuel handling and performance safety.
spontaneous ignition, altitude effects, lower flammability limit, mist ignitability, fire spread, minimum ignition energy, vapor pressure, volatility, crash fire survivability, oxygen enrichment
Head, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.