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The Abel, Pensky-Martens, Tag, and Setaflash testers are described with emphasis on differences in apparatus and procedure. The methods are classified into equilibrium and dynamic tests. Finally, the paper lists the differences in results that can be expected when a kerosine-type aviation turbine fuel is evaluated in all four test methods. These differences are large enough to require consideration when setting specification limits.
Abel flash method, Pensky-Martens flash tester, Tag closed tester, Setaflash closed tester, dynamic procedure, equilibrium procedure, comparison of flash methods
Group leader, Texaco Inc., Beacon, N.Y.