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    Evaluation and Results of a Survey of Blackbird and Mammal Damage to Mature Field Corn Over a Large (Three-State) Area


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    Details are presented of a three-stage cluster sampling design used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to produce estimates of bird and mammal damage to ripening field corn in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee in 1977. Results of the survey are briefly discussed. Analyses were performed that allowed the design to be evaluated and improved for future use. Edge-effect bias, which occurs when damage in the periphery of fields is much greater than damage in the interior, is analyzed and discussed.


    vertebrate pest control, survey design, blackbirds, corn damage, raccoons, edge bias

    Author Information:

    Stickley, AR
    Project leader, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bowling Green, Ky.

    Otis, DL
    Biometrician, Denver Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colo

    Palmer, DT
    District supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbus, Ohio

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.17

    DOI: 10.1520/STP34971S