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Crack-tip stress distributions were measured on the surface of fatigue-cracked specimens of 1045 steel using a semiautomatic X-ray diffraction technique. The influence of overload cycles and crack extension on crack-tip stress profiles was studied. These overload-influenced stress profiles were observed to follow current analytical models generally. Overload cycles were shown to have a strong effect on subsequent residual and applied stress profiles. It was deduced that overload-induced crack-tip residual stresses are tensile on the interior of the specimen, the implication being that crack growth retardation may thus be a surface related phenomenon. Crack tip applied stresses were also measured and were found to be consistent with simple models for the crack tip applied stress profile.
crack propagation, stresses, residual stresses, X-ray diffraction, crack growth retardation, fatigue (materials), steels
Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa.