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    Relationship of the Physiology of Aquatic Organisms to the Lethality of Toxicants: A Broad Overview with Emphasis on Membrane Permeability

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    A mechanism is proposed to explain differences in acute toxicity to different species caused by substances that form stable ammonia complexes. These substances include chlorine and various heavy metals. A deficiency in osmoregulation, resulting in damage to the gill but not the skin epithelia, is discussed in relation to varying degrees of toxicity affecting a wide spectrum of aquatic organisms.


    physiology, chlorine, chloramine, metals, toxicity, fish ammonia, gill epithelia, membrane permeability, sodium, efflux, influx, osmosis, aquatic toxicology

    Author Information:

    Katz, B
    Clemson University, Clemson, S. C.

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.26

    DOI: 10.1520/STP34878S