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A chronological review of the history of significant research contributing to the development of current bacteriological criteria and standards for shellfish waters is described beginning with Prescott, Winslow, and Eijkman in 1904 and culminating in a proposal for a fecal coliform standard in 1974. Coliform and fecal coliform standards are defined, and the significance of the presence of these organisms in shellfish waters is discussed. The National Shellfish Sanitation Program presumes that both coliform and fecal coliform standards represent equivalent degrees of pollution and resultant health hazard when measuring levels of diluted sewage related to point sources of pollution in shellfish growing area waters. These two indicator groups are used in conjunction with sanitary surveys for the classification of shellfish growing areas and interpreted according to the limitations of the groups.
bacteria, water, coliform bacteria, coliform group, fecal coliform group, shellfish, treatment plant effluents, sanitary survey
Assistant Chief, Shellfish Sanitation Branch, Division of Food Technology, Bureau of Foods, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C.,