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Subjective thresholds of acuity, acceptability, or preference must be obtained to assure a manufacturer that his product is desirable. Subjective tests are often costly and time consuming. This delays decision making and product improvement or availability. Therefore, much effort has been extended in recent years to relate subjective impressions to analytical measurements such that a subjective study need not be run each time a product is tested.
The intent of this paper is to present a few studies, initiated to evaluate product appearance, wherein statistical techniques have been interrelated to obtain and describe the relationship between subjective impressions and objective measurements. The techniques used to obtain and summarize subjective impressions are presented in some detail. They are not necessarily new and are not all-inclusive but are applicable for testing a variety of products with modifications dictated by the product tested or the threshold level of subjects. The emphasis in experimental design is on the scaling of items by rank order or paired comparison techniques.
senses, perception, consumers, product development, quality control, statistical techniques
Statistician, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del.