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The state of the art of consolidation testing is addressed except that conditions involving generalized stress states were excluded and large-strain problems were assigned to a companion paper. Terzaghi's classical theory was found to fit primary data rather well and the root time fitting method was preferred. Errors associated with boundary impedance and ring friction can be major but are generally understood and can be minimized. Existence of nonlinear stress-strain relationships can perturb the shape of S-t curves significantly and lead to problems when pore pressures are used to determine cv. Radial flow tests should be used for field problems involving horizontal flow; theories are presented to use in reducing laboratory data. Secondary effects can be addressed using linear theory and trial solutions, but such effects may be much more apparent in the laboratory than in the field. Effects of partial saturation are understood qualitatively and can influence laboratory data greatly. Continuous loading tests lead to overprediction of effective stresses but apparently to reasonable values of cv. Soil properties change significantly as a result of sampling disturbance and storage time; techniques for correcting for these effects are presented. The usefulness of laboratory data is examined using a case history.
case history, clay, consolidation, continuous loading, impedance, laboratory, partial saturation, radial flow, ring friction, sampling disturbance, secondary consolidation, soil, storage, temperature effects, testing, theory
L. P. Gilvin Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX