You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.
    This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.

    If you are an ASTM Compass Subscriber and this document is part of your subscription, you can access it for free at ASTM Compass

    Flow Softening and Anneal Hardening in Two-Phase Zr-2.5Nb

    Published: 01 January 1984

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (488K) 24 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (13M) 840 $92   ADD TO CART

    Cite this document

    X Add email address send
      .RIS For RefWorks, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zoteo, and many others.   .DOCX For Microsoft Word


    The flow properties of Zr-2.5Nb were determined in the (α + β) range at 998 and 1148 K, which corresponds to about 15 and 85 volume % β. The flow stresses were determined in axisymmetric compression at constant true strain rates ranging from 3.1 × 10−5 s−1 to 3.1 × 10−2 s−1.

    The flow curves were characterized by a peak stress followed by considerable flow softening and, for strain rates less than 10−3 s−1, the flow stress for the large β-fraction materials dropped by only 25 to 30% of the peak stress as compared with 50 to 70% for the predominantly α-materials. The amount of flow softening also decreased with increasing coarseness of the prior α-plate morphology.

    The α-plates rotated from an initially random to a distinctly transverse orientation, and at strain rates less than 10−3 s−1, the α-plate structure broke up to produce an equiaxed grain morphology. The strain rate sensitivity concurrently increased from 0.22 to 0.4.

    Significant anneal hardening was observed in the predominantly or fully α-region after a β-heat treatment, the amount of which increased with time of holding in the β-region. The activation energy was approximately 140 kJ/mole, which is similar to that for the diffusion of niobium in β-zirconium. The anneal hardening is ascribed to the formation of niobium-rich clusters in the β-phase. These clusters seem to be retained in the α-phase on cooling. Part of the flow softening in the anneal-hardened material can be ascribed to declustering by deformation.


    flow softening, anneal hardening, declustering, plate rotation, flow stress, substructure, proeutectoid, habit plane, rate sensitivity

    Author Information:

    Rizkalla, AS
    Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, N.S.

    Choubey, R
    Combustion Engineering Superheater Ltd., Moncton, N.B.

    Jonas, JJ
    McGill University, Montreal, P.Q.

    Committee/Subcommittee: B10.02

    DOI: 10.1520/STP34470S