You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.
    This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.

    If you are an ASTM Compass Subscriber and this document is part of your subscription, you can access it for free at ASTM Compass

    Extractive Metallurgy of Zirconium—1945 to the Present

    Published: 01 January 1984

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (652K) 32 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (13M) 840 $92   ADD TO CART

    Cite this document

    X Add email address send
      .RIS For RefWorks, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zoteo, and many others.   .DOCX For Microsoft Word


    Although the history of the reduction of zirconium dates from 1824 and the first ductile zirconium metal was produced in the laboratory in 1914, modern reduction practice was pioneered by the U.S. Bureau of Mines starting in 1945.

    This paper reviews the history of the extractive metallurgy of zirconium from the early work of W. J. Kroll and co-workers at the Bureau of Mines in Albany. Ore., through the commercial development of the production of reactor-grade zirconium metal which was spurred by the requirements of the Naval Reactor Program and the development of commercial nuclear power.

    Technical subjects covered include processes for opening the ore, zirconium-hafnium separation, chlorination of zirconium oxide, reduction processes, and electro-winning of zirconium metal. Proposed new processes and process modifications are reviewed.


    zirconium, hafnium, magnesium reduction, sodium reduction, moltensalt electrolysis, zirconium-hafnium separation, chlorination, carbochlorination, solvent extraction, extractive metallurgy, reactor-grade zirconium, nuclear metals, zirconium oxide, zirconium tetrachloride, zirconium carbonitride, Kroll process

    Author Information:

    Stephens, WW
    Chief, Boulder City Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Boulder City, Nev.

    Committee/Subcommittee: B10.02

    DOI: 10.1520/STP34458S