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All measurements are comparative in nature. Sometimes, however, the comparisons pertain to data separated so distinctly by time, geography, and personnel that the comparison must be qualified, if not discounted entirely. On the other hand, when the comparison is made by the same personnel in the same laboratory at the same time, both the physical interpretation and the statistical inference clearly have greater validity. Moreover, if one of the samples pertains to a reference population (say the material, processing, configuration, etc., presently being used), then the interpretation and inference are enhanced even further.