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This paper describes experiments that provided information on the behavior of vertical tubular steel piles under horizontal working loads in London clay. Four aspects of piled foundation behavior were examined:
1. The effect of static and cyclic horizontal working loads on the behavior of a single pile.
2. The magnitude of the induced movements in unloaded piles at three and six pile diameter spacings from a horizontally or vertically loaded pile.
3. The stiffness of a single pile loaded horizontally compared with the stiffness of a row of three piles loaded horizontally at right angles to the row.
4. The effect of a cap on the behavior of a row of three piles loaded vertically and horizontally (at right angles to the row).
The main conclusions drawn are:
1. Low levels of cyclic horizontal loading cause small adverse changes in the behavior of vertical piles.
2. The interaction between piles under horizontal load is considerably less than under vertical load.
3. Conclusion 2 is substantiated by the observations that the stiffness of three piles in a row is approximately three times the stiffness of a single pile under horizontal loads.
4. A cap significantly reduces the horizontal movements under load but has little effect on the vertical behavior of the piles.
5. The experimental techniques used enabled small changes in the pile-soil behavior to be successfully monitored.
piles, clay, horizontal and vertical loading, instrumented, pile cap, static and cyclic loading, seasonal effects, group effect, soil displacements
Senior scientific officer, Building Research Station, Garston, Watford