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This paper presents a limited review of the standard and code provisions relating to timber piles from the turn of the century to the present. The provisions relative to axial stress in ASTM Establishing Design Stresses for Round Timber Piles (D 2899-74) are discussed and compared to some of the background experimental data. The conclusion is drawn that ASTM Method D 2899-74 is generally satisfactory regarding axial stresses but has specific weaknesses requiring changes. While no changes are forseen in the immediate future in the use of timber piles for 335 to 445 KN (40 to 50 ton) loads, it is suggested that timber piles may be utilized for higher capacity requirements. The view is expressed that limitations on pile material stresses are not proper in a building code, that such limitations are more appropriately placed in guidelines for foundation engineers selecting piles for specific applications.
wooden piles, standards, building codes, stresses, mechanical properties, dimensions, evaluation
President, GFDS Engineers, San Francisco, Calif.