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To achieve satisfactory control of significant variables governing the response of soils to earthquake or vibratory loading it is often necessary to conduct investigations under laboratory conditions. The authors have taken this approach in an attempt to devise a testing procedure and an apparatus which permit valid conclusions to be drawn concerning earthquake effects on saturated sands. Relationships are established through the use of elastic wave propagation theory which describe the effects of passage of an earthquake disturbance through a soil deposit. These relationships form the basis for the design of a test apparatus with which simulated seismic disturbances can be applied to small saturated sand samples. The disturbances are produced by employing a device which includes, among other components, a standard triaxial cell of proper piston-sample diameter ratio and a cell pressure changing mechanism. Recorded responses of the specimens are summarized to establish the effects of several important variables on the tendency of sand for liquefaction and on observed deformations. Among the factors considered are initial void ratio and relative density and initial stress conditions. It is shown that initial shearing stresses are significant in their effect on pore pressure responses. The results are compared with those of other investigators and with observations of naturally occurring phenomena to evaluate the validity of the tests.
testing, sand, soil dynamics, dynamic loads, liquefaction, seismic, triaxial tests, stress controlled, evaluation, tests
Assistant professor, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore.
Professor and chairmanPersonal member, University of IdahoASTM, Moscow, Idaho