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X-ray diffraction is used to delineate the structure of materials, their chemical and phase analyses, grain and domain sizes, internal strain (stress), texture, imperfections, homogeneity, etc. In this paper, the practicality of the methods is emphasized; diffractometer techniques can be simple, quantitative, and rapid, and together with film techniques, permit examination of a wide range of materials. Examples are given of the characterization of structure by X-ray diffraction techniques and of the applications of the results in such different investigations as mechanical and physical properties of solid solutions, recrystallization of steel, pore structure of carbons, creep properties, surface stresses, and transformation of austenite to bainite.
X-ray diffraction, metallography, crystallography, preparation, lattice parameters, carbon, mechanical properties, recovery, crystallite size, texture
Consultant, Swarthmore, Pa.