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    The Inspiratory Path to the Lungs

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    Environmental air and its pollutants must ordinarily pass through the nasal or oronasal airway. During its inspiratory passage, the physical nature of the air is modified, and many pollutants are removed. Considering these facts, it is essential that studies of the pulmonary effects of air pollutants be conducted under circumstances which allow free breathing through the upper airways. In evaluations of toxicological investigations in experimental animals, the comparative anatomy and physiology of the nose is a necessary component.


    air pollution, nasal airway, inhalation toxicology

    Author Information:

    Proctor, DF
    Professor, Department of Environmental Health Science, Otolaryngology and Anesthesiology, The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    Committee/Subcommittee: D22.01

    DOI: 10.1520/STP32842S