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The rate and concentration of thermal donors generated during 450°C anneals were observed to be dependent on wafer thermal history. Oxygen thermal donors formed by the silicon-vacancy and silicon interstitial models were examined and the silicon-interstitial donor formation was observed to be the dominating mechanism for the 450°C oxygen thermal donor. Thermally induced microdefects were also observed. Depending on the wafer thermal history less than 1 × 1014 donors/cm3 to as much as 3.7 × 1014 donors/cm3 were formed during the 450°C anneals.
Thermal donors, oxygen precipitation, denuded zone, oxygen out-diffusion, silicon vacancies, silicon interstitials
Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA