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This paper comprises a study of the resistance to the propagation of a ductile tear in 316 stainless steel parent plate in all six orientations, and submerged-arc and manual metal arc weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions in stainless weldments at 370 and 540°C. Tests were carried out in bending and tension in both load and displacement control at 370°C. The propagation resistances of the various regions are assessed from the measurement of resistance curves and maximum load toughness using both crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and J-integral parameters.
The T-L orientation appears to have the poorest resistance to tearing of the four normal cracking orientations for parent plate. The S-L orientation, however, has the worst toughness overall. Heat-affected zone toughness of both manual and submerged-arc welds is equivalent to parent plate. Submerged-arc weld metal toughness is comparable with the T-L orientation in plate material. Manual metal arc weld metal toughness is inferior to the toughness exhibited by submerged-arc and the four normal cracking orientations in parent plate. Increasing the test temperature from 370 to 540°C for manual metal arc weld metal appears to produce a distinct increase in resistance to ductile crack propagation.
Provided adequate thickness constraint is ensured, maximum load toughness determinations from the standard laboratory three-point bend geometry would appear to give conservative estimates of tensile instabilities under load control. The relevance of this behavior is discussed in terms of the use of single-parameter design curve methods for the estimate of tolerable flaw sizes in structural applications
stainless steel, welded joints, plate, bend tests, crack propagation, ductile fracture, fracture toughness
Head, Fracture Section, Engineering Department, The Welding Institute, Research Laboratory, Abington, Cambridge,