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Although pesticide delivery to aquatic pests is a broad subject, attention to two common principles is necessary for efficient control of such pests. These principles are (1) knowledge of the pest's biology and habitat and (2) the delivery of the control agent to that habitat and the availability of the agent to the pest species. The larval mosquito is a suitable example for consideration of these principles. Within its larval habitat, a mosquito species responds to various stimuli that can influence its activity and feeding. Depending on the species, the larval habitat itself further influences larval behavior and also the toxic effect of control agents. The delivery of the control agent in granular form is influenced greatly by the particle size, and, generally, the release of organic insecticides from granules and other solid formulations is not very efficient. The development and ultimate value of entomopathogens, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, Serotype H-14, will depend greatly on formulation technology, since toxicity depends on ingestion and the extent to which this agent remains within the larval feeding zone. Since mosquito species, their habits, and their habitats are so variable, single all-purpose formulations of organic insecticides or entomopathogens are only generally effective. To increase effectiveness, technology should develop several formulations, each designed for specific pest species and habitats.
pesticides, aquatic habitat, mosquitoes, entomopathogens, granular formulations, chronotoxicity
Mosquito Research and Control, Cook College, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Cook College, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.