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    Suitability of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) for Life-Cycle Toxicity Tests

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    Entire life-cycle toxicity tests are practical with sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. This is the only estuarine fish that has been utilized successfully in life-cycle toxicity tests, using methods formulated only since 1973. Salinity, temperature, and spawning requirements were determined, and initial life-cycle toxicity tests with endrin were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gulf Breeze (Florida) Laboratory. Subsequent tests with heptachlor, carbofuran, methoxychlor, and malathion were conducted at Gulf Breeze or at EG&G, Bionomics. All studies confirmed the feasibility of using this estuarine fish for determining maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations and application factors. Results of our tests also corroborate data on application factors obtained in studies completed elsewhere with freshwater fishes and the same pesticides.


    water analysis, toxicology, sheepshead minnows, endrin, heptachlor, carbofuran, malathion, methoxychlor, application factor, life cycles, toxicity tests, pesticides

    Author Information:

    Hansen, DJ
    Research aquatic biologist, Environmental Research Laboratory, Fla

    Parrish, PR
    Director, EG&G, Bionomics, Marine Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.13

    DOI: 10.1520/STP32394S