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    Techniques for Electron Microscopic Fractography

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    The basic techniques of electron microscopic fractography are reviewed. Steps to be prior to replication for preventing damage and for cleaning are briefly covered. The three most common replication methods are discussed in detail. These methods are the plastic carbon, direct carbon, and oxide techniques. Examination techniques are also discussed covering the range for visual selection of areas to be studied through photography of representative areas. Stereoscopic viewing is given heavy emphasis because of the special advantages of this technique. Finally, the complementary technique of fracture sectioning is described.


    electron microscopy, replication techniques, metals, metallurgy, fracture surfaces, fractography, metallography

    Author Information:

    Warke, WR
    Instructor, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill.

    Nielsen, NA
    Research fellow, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.

    Hertzberg, RW
    Assistant professor, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.

    Hunter, MS
    Scientific associate, Alcoa Research Laboratory, New Kensington, Pa.

    Hill, M
    Research metallurgist, Republic Steel Corp., Brecksville, Ohio

    Committee/Subcommittee: E08.03

    DOI: 10.1520/STP32008S