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A numerical procedure is described for predicting the viscoelastic response of general laminates. A nonlinear compliance model is used to predict the creep response of the individual laminae. A biaxial delayed failure model predicts ply failure. The numerical procedure, based on lamination theory, increases by increments through time to predict creep compliance and delayed failures in laminates. Numerical stability problems and experimental verification are discussed. Although the program has been quite successful in predicting creep of general laminates, the assumptions associated with lamination theory have resulted in erroneous bounds on the predicted material response. Delayed failure predictions have been conservative. Several improvements are suggested to increase the accuracy of the procedure.
laminated composite materials, graphite/epoxy, creep, delayed failures, viscoelasticity, time-dependent phenomena numerical predictions, accelerated characterization, composites
Assistant professor, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO
Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA