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The effective stress analysis of soils requires that pore pressure be evaluated throughout a compression test. The initial negative (capillary) pressure is first determined. If this capillary pressure is large, the measuring system always must be controlled so that its suction never exceeds the water separation limit. Then the pore water pressure can be measured accurately when the volume change is sufficient to increase it to values that can be measured directly. By combining the initial pressure with the measurable pressure values and relating them to volume change, a complete pore pressure evaluation is obtained. This paper presents the procedures, even for soils with capillary pressures that have negative values considerably greater than 1 atmosphere.
Head, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo.