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Finite element analyses of the direct simple shear sample do account for the three-dimensional state of displacement, strain, and stress. Three independent analyses indicate substantial uniformity of stress in the central region of a linearly elastic sample, but stress concentrations at the edges may make the device unsuitable for very sensitive soils or for investigation of progressive failure. The results of photoelastic investigations described in the report include unsymmetric distributions of stress that are mathematically anomalous and are probably caused by inadequate restraints at the boundaries.
direct shear tests, simple shear tests, finite elements, photo-elasticity
Senior consulting engineer, Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Mass.