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Various laboratory treatments of clay specimens produced an increase in the frictional component of their ability to mobilize shear resistance. These treatments included compression after isotropic normal consolidation, compression after isotropic overconsolidation, anisotropic normal consolidation, chemically induced dispersion, changing pore fluid, decreasing rate-of-strain, increasing time for secondary compression, and allowing time for creep. The paper shows how increasing clay fabric dispersion in these treatments relates directly to an increased friction capability. The author then suggests that the dispersion shifts the external shear load to stiffer and stronger aggregates of particles in the fabric. This produces a stiffer and stronger clay due to its increased frictional capability. The practical aspects of this behavior include a better understanding of various laboratory specimen aging effects such as increasing modulus and the quasi-preconsolidation effect, recognizing it as a frictional and not a bonding behavior, and the desirability of including such behavior in the laboratory or computer simulation of in situ performance.
soils, soil tests, shear properties, clays, fabric, compressibility, aging, time effects, friction
Principal, Schmertmann and Crapps, Inc., Gainesville, Fla.