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Since perfection is neither achievable nor often economical, nonconforming systems, subsystems, assemblies, modules, components, parts, and raw materials (hereinafter referred to as items) will always exist. The management system for the control of nonconforming items is especially important because of the significant consequences which may accrue in the absence of such control. A nonconforming item could impact product or personnel safety adversely; its adverse cost impact could be great because of the item's replacement, repair, or rework cost; because of the item's schedule impact; or because of the item's contribution to the inability of the product to perform considering the resultant costs. The management system's importance is amplified further by the fact that once knowing of a nonconformance, the legal and moral responsibilities of the company are increased and the penalties to the company are greater in the event that the nonconformance causes damage.