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This paper considers shape changes which develop progressively in hourglass specimens subjected to fully reversed cyclic plastic strain applied in a variety of mechanical and thermal waveforms. While the strain at the minimum diameter is controlled, off-center locations subjected to cyclic plastic strain undergo ratcheting. Two major off-center shape changes have been observed: barreling and necking. The paper discusses the reasons for these changes.
thermal fatigue, strains, necking
Mechanical engineer and Coolidge Fellow, Corporate Research and Development, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y.